How To Turn India Post into a Success Story
The story goes that Dhirubhai Ambani had a vision of a phone service that could connect people all over India at a cost lower than that of a postcard.
Not only has this vision come true, but has become even bigger than what Mr Ambani could have even imagined – pan-India phone calls are now practically free and postcards are extinct. In fact, people don’t send anything by post any more. Communication is almost totally electronic today, and documents and parcels are couriered.
Where does that leave the Indian Post Office (IPO)?
A few numbers:
  • Nearly 156,000 post-offices, 90% in rural locations.
  • Over 416,000 employees, of whom 41% are direct staff and 59% are Gramin Dak Sewaks (GSD).
  • Revenue Rs13,600 crore, loss Rs14,800 crore plus pension Rs10,000 crore pa (per annum) (guesstimate). 
  • 4,560 owned buildings, 19,641 rented buildings (where are the other 130,000 post offices located?). 
This huge army of people, spread across so many locations, generates only a paltry income. Evidently, there is not much business; hence, not much income.
But one thing is there in plenty – complaints. 
During 2019-20, IPO received 175,000 complaints. Compare this with the Indian Railways (IR), which employees ten times more people, serves a massive number of travellers and generates over nine times the income.
IR is not considered to be the epitome of efficiency. Yet, it receives about 800,000 complaints per year, less than half that of IPO, despite being 10 times bigger.
IPO is pretty bad at its job, wouldn’t you say?
So, what do you do with such an organisation?
There is the 'butcher' solution, of course. Shut down IPO, sell off the owned properties and sub-lease the rented ones where possible, give the staff a VRS, etc. Shrieks of protest will abound, plus the lost votes…
Another option is to let IPO die a slow, natural death. Let the employees retire one by one, gradually shut down the post-offices, bear the annual loss for many years to come, etc. This is a quiet solution – no public protests, no lost votes, no hangama… and what’s Rs20,000 crore a year anyway?
The brave solution is to re-engineer IPO and turn it into a profitable and valuable organisation, which is what the government (purportedly) is trying to do. IPO’s annual report talks about rural outreach, trust among people, etc. 
All that is very nice to hear, but what does IPO do?
What everyone else does, of course. Lots of banks in India, so let’s do banking. Let’s also sell insurance, deliver passports or (innovation!) sell pure gangajal, from Gangotri itself, bottled for your convenience.
Unfortunately, none of these businesses do much for the bottom-line.
Take banking, for instance. IPO’s banking arm has deposits of Rs8.23 lakh crore, quite a sizeable amount, bigger than Punjab National Bank (PNB). However, PNB has 100,000 employees, less than a quarter of IPO’s staff strength. Deposits of Rs8.23 lakh crore cannot sustain over 400,000 employees.
A very large branch network is no longer useful to a bank. Banking is going electronic very rapidly, and in India, where more and people are acquiring smart phones, branch banking eventually will become redundant.
Besides, who needs another bank anyway? The government is trying to consolidate banks and make them big. A Rs8 lakh crore bank is neither here nor there.
Other businesses, such as selling insurance, can at best be a side-show, not capable of paying IPO’s huge staff costs.
Bottom line – IPO is chasing business lines which are already crowded and where it has no special strength. This will never lead to viability.
What, then?
May I offer a possible option?
Consider the emerging business in India – e-commerce. Volumes are growing at breakneck speed, and total business is expected to reach Rs15 lakh crore in 2026, a six-fold growth since 2017. Even online grocery sales are expected to grow at a CAGR (compounded annual growth rate) of 57%, reaching Rs1.5 lakh crore in 2024. As internet connectivity and smartphone usage increase, and people discover the ease of buying online, there is no doubt that e-commerce will boom in the years to come.
 Yet, the biggest market for e-commerce is yet largely untapped – rural India. And this is where IPO has an outstanding edge over anyone else.
A big hurdle facing all e-commerce companies is the ‘last mile problem’, i.e., how to get the goods to the buyer from the last point up to which it is possible to carry items in bulk. The cost of this final delivery leg can be as much as 50% of the total transportation cost.
IPO has a huge coverage in the rural areas with a post-office serving, on an average, just 21sq km (square kilometre).
Postmen are used to covering a reasonably large area on foot or bicycle. They are also used to handling small packages and delivering them to the right addresses and, hence, they need little training to become the ‘last mile carrier’ in an e-commerce delivery chain.
There is also a significant opportunity for reverse delivery, i.e., picking up stuff from senders and forwarding them to recipients. While on his rounds delivering letters and e-commerce packages the postman can also pick up courier packets and other material for onward delivery, including (possibly) handicraft items made in rural homes.
There is absolutely no other organisation in India that has such a huge reach over the entire country with an army of trained ‘delivery executives’. All that is needed is to organise its capabilities, tie up with major e-commerce and courier companies, and leverage its coverage (especially in villages).
If done right, IPO can truly become a phoenix, rising from the ashes of a decaying postal business to being the monopoly service-provider in a crucial leg of the e-commerce delivery chain.
Will this happen, or will the dying duck turn into a dead duck and not a phoenix?
(Deserting engineering after a year in a factory, Amitabha Banerjee did an MBA in the US and returned to India. Choosing work-to-live over live-to-work, he joined banking and worked for various banks in India and the Middle East. Post retirement, he returned to his hometown Kolkata and is now spending his golden years travelling the world (until Covid, that is), playing bridge, befriending Netflix & Prime Video and writing in his wife’s travel blog.)
6 days ago
Hello Mr. Amitabha Banerjee, Can we talk regarding postoffice? 99 52 39 00 40
1 month ago
To my knowledge India Post is in ecommerce delivery business for pat 6-7 years. Amazon India uses it as delivery partner -
Chandan Kumar
2 months ago
Few sellers on Amazon use post office for delivery.I have to personally go to post office to collect fancy umbrella which i ordered online.These lethargic people will never change
Amitabha Banerjee
2 months ago
Dear Mr Godble, This is for the online sellers to figure out!!
2 months ago
The idea is good and maybe workable too but what is the potential of ecommerce in rural hinterland, where 90% of IPO's outlet are situated? DO the rural folks have purchasing power that their urban counterparts have? That's a big question.
2 months ago
In PSU one can not expect huge profits, but above all these structural weakness the main weakness is from employees that still show callousness and lethargy in offering service. Though they have digitalized the operations, they have not streamlined the system and modernized operations delegating authority to lower offices. Imagine, one has to wait for 15 days to get a duplicate pass book and many offices insist police complaint, to formally revive a silent account you have to produce nine documents !!!!. For deficiency in delivering a registered post envelope, they usually pay Rs.1,000/- as compensation and Rs.25,000+ for advocates fee , for complaint in District Forums, all these apart from attending complaint and not to talk of such deputation expenses and loss of man hours. First let them confine to their basic obligations by streamlining the procedures fixing timeframe all services, then they can think of expanding and aiming profitability. A well-laid down system in the past now reduced as most inefficient in modern times.

2 months ago
Create or add logistic service and tie up with e-commerce portals like flipkart amazone etc.
2 months ago
Staff salary,perks and preivelages are high.
Give them golden handshake like BSNL and contract labour with same salary with no perks.
Amitabha Banerjee
2 months ago
Dear Sarafji, India has people who created Zomato, Flipkart etc and grew them into Billion Dollar businesses. People with the capability are there, but IAS babus won't do. If the government really wants it to happen, it can happen.
2 months ago
Great vision .....I don't think many others thought of such Possible Meaningful suggestions. Large Question is Who will implement ? Let's pray ......
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